5 November, 2021

Bible Study: Understanding the books of the Bible

Lesson # 4

Scripture Reading: (Psalm 119:89, Matthew 5:18; 24:35, I Peter 1:25;1:21;2:2, 2 Timothy 3:16, Hebrews 4:12.)

There are 39 books in the Old Testament, generally separated into 4 divisions:

The Pentateuch, traditionally designed as the 5 books of Moses

Historical Books, 12 books from Joshua to Esther

Poetical Books, 5 books from Job to Song of Solomon

Prophetical Books, including the writings of the 5 Major Prophets from Isaiah to Daniel, and the 12 Minor Prophets from Hosea to Malachi.

This lesson will consist of Poetical Books, 5 books from Job to Song of Solomon:

Main Scripture: Psalm 119:105

Book of the Bible: Job: “God is sovereign!”

Author: Unknown, (Job, Moses, and Solomon have been suggested)

Time: When was the book of Job written? Scholars have debated this question for generations. Many scholars regard it as the oldest book in the Bible, while others believe it was written as late as the time of the Babylonian exile.

Structure: The first part of the book (1:1-2:10) describe the identity of Job, what happened to him and who caused it. The second part (2:11-31:40) covers the arrival of Job’s three friends and the conversation that took place between them and Job. Part three (32-37) describes Job’s instruction from a younger man named Elihu. Part four (38, 39) gives God’s reply to Job’s question about his suffering. Part five (41:1-42:9) covers Job’s two confessions, as well as God’s rebuke of Eliphaz. Bildad, and Zophar; and his demand that they make sacrifices for their sinful words. The final scene (42:10-17) describes Job’s prayers for his friends and the restoration of his wealth and position.

In this book, there were leaders of Israel, (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph).

Chapters: (42)

Memory verse in the book: (Job 42:10) “An enriching prayer”

Abbreviation of the book: (Jb.)

Life Principles in the book: God assumes full responsibility for our needs when we obey Him. (Job 42:7-17)

Key Thought: Those who turn fully to God in sorrow even if they argue, plead, and protest in his present as job did, will find a pathway to the tender mercies of heaven.

Key Verse: “For I know that my Redeemer lives, and he shall stand at last on the earth (Job 19:25).

Key Action: we must trust God even when it appears he is slaying us. (see Job 13:15).

Key Prayer: Lord, whether you give or take away help me say blessed be the name of the Lord. AMEN.

Book of the Bible: Psalms “The Lord is my Shepherd”

Author: the authorship of many of the psalms is in doubt or unknown. (73 songs) are attributed to David. Other named writers include the sons of Korah (11 songs), Asaph (12 songs), Heman (1 song), Ethan (1 song), Solomon (2 songs), Moses (1 song), Haggai (1 song), Zachariah (1 song), and Ezra (1 song).
Time: Psalms were written over a long period in Israelite history and ranging from the time of Moses through the end of the Babylonian captivity.

Structure: Each of the psalms is a stand-alone work emphasizing a particular topic. Psalms does not appear to be arranged in any discernible order or according to any particular time-line.

In this book, there was a king’ writing of song and of others!

Chapters (150)

Memory verse in the book: (Psalm 84:11) “The matchless Giver”

Abbreviation of the book: (Ps.)

Life Principles in the book: “Peace with God is the fruit of oneness with God.” (Psalm 4:8)

Key Thought: The book of Psalm, Israel’s hymnbook, teaches us to continually praise God for His greatness, goodness, and glory. Listening to God is essential to walking with God. (Psalm 81:8).

Key Verse: Psalm 100:1-2 King James Version

Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all ye lands.Serve the Lord with gladness: come before his presence with singing.”

Key Action: Worship! Sing! Praise!

Key Prayer: In all things let my words and thoughts honor You Lord, may my life be a living praise to Your goodness, AMEN.

Book of the Bible: Proverbs: “Mother Wisdom”

Author: Solomon is the generally accepted author of Proverbs (1-29 Agur and Lemuel are credited with writing chapters (30-31).

Time: Solomon ruled Israel in the 10th century BC apparently King Hezekiah’s men complied and edited many of his proverbs during the revival of their day. (Circa 715-683 BC) a fact briefly noted in (Proverbs 25:1).

Structure: Chapters (1-7) of proverbs takes the form of “fatherly advice” concerning the acquisition of wisdom. Chapters (8 and 9) issues Solomon’s call to wisdom. Chapters (10-20) contracts wisdom and foolishness, godliness, and ungodliness, and good and evil. Chapters (21-24) offer wisdom in the form of maximum and counselor, and Chapters (25-29) present more of Solomon’s proverbs, compiled and edited during King Hezekiah’s time. Chapter (30) gives us the words of Agur. Chapter (31:1-9) are from King Lemuel. Proverbs (31:10-31) describe an ideal wife.

In this book, there were Israel king before captivity.

Chapters: (31)

Memory verse in the book: (Proverbs 3:15) “The precious possession”

Abbreviation of the book: (Pr.)

Life Principles in the book: “You reap what you sow, more than sow, and later than you sow.” (See Proverbs 11:30; 20:4; 26:27).

Key Thought: Success in the practical matters of life requires reverence for God and obedience to his rules for living

Key Verse: The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and instructions (Proverbs 1:7).

Key Action: We must receive God’s word and treasure His commands within us, inclining our ears to wisdom and our hearts to understanding; (See Proverbs 2:1-2).

Key Prayer: God, help me walk in the way of goodness and keep to the path of righteousness. AMEN.

Book of the Bible: Ecclesiastes: “Preacher”

Author: Uncertain but thought to be king Solomon

Time: Solomon ruled Israel in the 10th century BC

Structure: The introduction to Ecclesiastes declares the futility of human effort apart from a living relationship with God. Chapter 1:1-11). Still, life is to be enjoyed as a gift from God’s own hand. Chapter (1:12-11:6), and because death is coming sooner than we think in our enjoyment of life we should remember that God’s judgment also is coming. Chapter (11:7-12:8). The book concludes with a charge to fear God and obey his commandments (Chapter 12:9-14).

In this book, there were the King of Israel.

Chapters: (12)

Memory verse in the book: “The Great conclusion” (Ecclesiastes 12:13)

Abbreviation of the book: (Ec.)

Life Principles in the book: Adversity is a bridge to a deeper relationship with God. (See Ecclesiastes 7:14).

Key Thought: Life without God is meaningless.

Key Verse: Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter. Fear God and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man. (Chapter 12:13).

Key Action: To be happy and fulfilled, we must fear God obey him, live for eternity, and let Him bring meaningfulness to every area of life.

Key Prayer: Lord, please grant me wisdom from above that I may find true happiness and meanings in your way, Amen.

Book of the Bible: Song of Solomon: “My beloved”

Author: Solomon

Time: Solomon ruler of Israel in the 10th century BC.

Structure: The book is arranged like scenes in a drama with three main speakers: the bride (Shulamite), the groom (Solomon), and a chorus of daughters of Jerusalem.

In this book, there were King Solomon.

Chapters: (8)

Memory verse in the book: “The unfaithful vineyard keeper” (Song. 1:6).

Abbreviation of the book: (Song.)

Life Principles in the book: Our intimacy with God, His highest priority for our lives determines the impact of our lives. (See Song of Solomon 2:13).

Key Thought: God’s pattern for courtship and marriage provides a template for a beautiful and lasting relationship based on his unquenchable love.

Key Verse: “Set me as a seal upon your heart, as a seal upon your arms for love is as strong as death, jealousy as cruel as the grave; it flames are flames of fire, a most vehement flame. Many waters cannot quench You love, nor can the flood drown it. (Song of Solomon 8:6-7).

Key Action: Never let resentments, arguments, neglect, and other “Little foxes” nibble away at the health of the romance of the home.

Key Prayer: Father, may I be loved purely and learn to love purely, AMEN.


1). Read main scripture for lesson four.

2). Name the books in lesson four.

3). How many chapters are in each book?

4). Name the author of each book in lesson four.

5). Give the abbreviation of each book?

6). In these books was there a leader, a judge, a prophet, or a king?

7). Name and add each book as we go through our study.

8). Name the division where these books can be found in this lesson.

9). Who was the main person in each book?

10). What year was each book written?

11). What is the memory verse in each book?

12). What is the key verse in each book?

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